Along with water and alcohol in Braga contain other substances, many of which are harmful to the body. Fortunately, the temperature of boiling is higher or lower than that of ethanol, so by using fractional distillation (separation of fractions) it is possible to prevent the most dangerous impurities in the finished product. We will look at methods to select the correct number of tails and heads of moonshine that will have a positive impact on the quality of the distillate.
Attention! Information is relevant only for regular moonshine, consisting of stills and a fridge in the shape of the coil, it is also possible the presence of suchoparek. For devices with dephlegmators and other devices simulating the operation of the distillation column, the selection parameters of the tails and heads may differ from those listed here. Suggest to clarify this point, constructors scheme, manufacturers or sellers of equipment. I do not advise commercial models of vehicles.
The amount of harmful impurities depends on the raw materials, water, yeast, temperature, duration of fermentation, design moonshine and technology of distillation. Even in Braga on the same recipe of the concentration of pollutants may vary every time, but at home the analysis of the composition of Braga impossible, so you have to be based on approximate values.
The “head” of moonshine (also called “Pervatsch” or “Pervak”) – the initial fraction with a sharp odor. Contains the most hazardous impurities: methyl alcohol (lots of grain and fruit mash), acetone, acetaldehyde and others. Due to the fact that the boiling point of the harmful substances lower than that of ethyl alcohol by distillation they go first, consequently, it is possible to prevent them from falling into the core product.
Commonly, the liquor is considered the highest quality moonshine, as a strong and rapidly intoxicating. In fact it is a poison in its pure form, its use causes toxic poisoning that is often confused with intoxication.
Head the strongest
Head of vodka not to drink or use for grinding. This fraction can go exclusively to the technical needs, but because of the unpleasant odor in most cases it just poured.
“Body” – the drinking part, the main purpose of the moonshiner (the second name – “heart”). In theory contains only ethyl alcohol and water, but in practice in the “body” there are always other impurities, because distillation physically impossible to split the output to clear the fractions in varying degrees by different substances with close boiling points always shuffled, the output is “blurry”.
For the complete decomposition into fractions of the desired rectification, which can obtain pure ethyl alcohol. The drawback of this method – together with the harmful impurities are removed the substances responsible for the organoleptic properties of the drink.
This means that after rectification the taste and smell of moonshine from different raw material (sugar, grain and fruit) will be the same, since the drink will only ethyl alcohol.
It should be remembered that the harm and benefit of many substances in the distillate relative. For example, fusel oil cause the liver to become active before beginning to operate the alcohol, it protects the body against the damaging effects of alcohol.
Research Professor, research Institute of narcology of Ministry of health of the Russian Federation Need Vladimir Pavlovich proved that the rectified spirit (vodka) leads to alcohol dependence much faster than distillates – whiskey, brandy, tequila, etc. About 70% of dependent people are vodka drinkers. The purer the poison (in this case ethyl alcohol), the faster developing addictive.
The correct division of moonshine into fractions by distillation on a classic moonshine allows you to remove almost all harmful substances, but leave those that are responsible for the aroma and taste of the drink, which can be done by rectification.
The “tail” of the brew – the third fraction, in addition to ethyl alcohol containing fusel oil, giving the odor, taste and murky color. The boiling point of booze is higher than that of ethanol, therefore, to separate the tail of the moonshine, enough time to stop the collection of the main product – the “body”.
Although distillation in the “tails” still has a lot of ethyl alcohol (40%), but getting together with other substances spoils the quality of the brew, so it is important to finish the distillation.
Tails can be recycled, but usually it’s not worth the energy spent
In contrast to the “heads”, “tails” can be recycled or you can add them to a new batch of mash (before distillation) or clear on a distillation column. To distill the “tails” for the second time in the moonshine is useless, it will not improve quality!
The question of how to select “heads” and “tails” is a compromise between quantity and quality of the brew. We will continue to use the “Golden mean” – the parameters inspected by many generations of moonshiners. You can change them at own discretion both in one and in the other direction. I’m going to pay attention to specific numbers and ways of counting.
How to select the head of the Hooch
First Braga bring to a boil. At the first drops reduce power to minimum, then gradually increase the heating to the unit went into work mode. Performance depends on the design and capacity of the plate, medium settings here. The norm is, when the brew goes cold (temperature approximately equal to the temperature of the cooling water). This should strive for.
Methods of Department heads:
1. Sugar. The easiest, but at the same time effective method. Fits in the case, if you know the sugar content of the mash or the amount of added sugar. In the fruit or grain alcohol sugar content is determined with a special device – phenomenom (hydrometer-chromatron) before introducing yeast.
For example, you have 5 liters of mash sugar content of 20%, this means that the total content of sugar – 1 kg (5*0,2=1). In the calculation it is assumed that 1 liter of the solution by weight is equal to the 1st kilogram, in practice this is not so, but the result itself, the error has little effect, and the calculation simplifies considerably, so I advise you not to “bother”.
With 1 kg of sugar taken 60-100 ml heads. It is desirable to split this amount into two distillation, taking 30-50 ml of the exit at the first distillation and the same amount during the second.
2. By pure alcohol. It is not always possible to know the sugar content before fermentation. In this case, the first distillation is done without a cut-off “heads”, then measure the amount of absolute alcohol. For example, if you get 6 liters of total distillate fortress 63%, it contains 3.78 liters of pure alcohol (6*0,63=3,78). To simplify the calculations, the strength of ethyl is taken for 100%, but to absolute alcohol only in laboratory conditions.
In the second distillation fraction head cut off is based 8-15% of the amount of pure alcohol. In our example, this 0,567 liters (3,78*0,15=0,567).
One form of this method is the selection of 1% of the volume of goals from Braga, but due to various reasons related to fermentation and sugar concentration, this method cannot be considered accurate to better navigate in absolute ethyl.
3. The smell of it. Suitable for experienced distillers, which can determine head of the Hooch at the unpleasant smell.
Emerging from the apparatus the distillate periodically sniffing, rubbing a few drops in hands when the pungent smell disappears, beginning to take the “body”. This method is good to verify the correctness of the calculations based on sugar or alcohol.
4. Temperature. Due to the design of moonshine stills and the different composition of impurities, this method is not always works well in practice. I recommend to use only in extreme cases. I quote it for reference.
Evaporating temperature “heads” – 65-68°C. During the distillation when the temperature reaches 63°C (the thermometer should stand at the entrance to the refrigerator) heating capacity sharply reduced, to smoothly reach the above temperature range. Then select “head”, while from the apparatus are drops. When the output is terminated, the temperature was raised to 78°C and taken the body to a temperature of 85°C. the Values are approximate, and may differ depending on the machine!
How to separate the tails at the moonshine
Evidence of the occurrence of tails is the fall of the fortress in the stream to 30-45 degrees. In order not to miss this moment, preferably towards the end of the distillation to collect the effluent from the apparatus moonshine in a flask or a small jar where just to make a measurement of the alcoholometer (the temperature of the liquid necessarily 20°C). If the fortress is high enough, pour the distillate into a common receptacle and to expose the jar.
The first distillation (especially fruit and grain mash), you can collect the “body” while the degree of the distillate has fallen below 30%. The brew is sometimes cloudy, but nothing terrible, the second distillation, in which the beginning of the tails is considered to be a strength of 40%, will correct the problem.
Most moonshiners prefer to think of tails all moonshine, which has a strength less than 40 degrees. If the alcoholometer, no, moonshine is taken to the until it burns in the spoon.
When the strength of output falls below the minimum, the distillation is stopped by stopping the heat, or continue to collect tails to 15-20%, but it is wasted energy and time, which in most cases is not justified.