Winemaking is an art, the secrets of which need to learn over the years, but to make homemade grape wine can anyone. It is clear that it is not a masterpiece worthy of the world exhibitions, but under the instructions of a homemade taste of the drink will be better than many shops. I offer detailed technology of wine making (red and white) in the home. The recipe uses only the grapes and sugar in rare cases, require more water.
For home winemaking approach is better than other grape varieties such as Stepnyak, Platovskiy, Dewdrop, Friendship, Regent, Saperavi, Crystal, Festival, and which do not require special care and have a fairly high sugar content. But this does not mean that from other varieties, such as Isabella or Lydia, you can’t make wine, just have to add more sugar.
Before you start cooking, make sure all used containers and devices. So as not to infect the juice of pathogenic microorganisms, for example mold, the containers must be perfectly clean and dry. Barrels, bottles, buckets can start to smoke gray, as is done in industry, or rinsed with boiled water, then wipe with a dry cloth. Strongly recommend avoiding vessels, which previously stored milk, because even a thorough cleaning does not always help.
Add water is only practical if the juice is very acidic – the taste makes your tongue tingle and brings cheekbones. However, keep in mind that the introduction of sugar by itself reduces the acidity. In all other cases, dilution with water affect the taste, so not recommended.
1. The collection and processing of the crop. Below the grapes is guaranteed to remain necessary for the fermentation, wild yeast, berries, preferably, in dry Sunny weather. A minimum of 2-3 days before this should be no rain.
For winemaking is only the ripe fruit. In unripe grapes too much acid, and in overripe berries starts acetic fermentation, which subsequently can ruin all of the must (pressed juice). Also not recommended to take the ground, where, as a wine an unpleasant taste of the earth. Plucked the berries should be processed within two days.
Harvested grapes are thoroughly sort out, removing twigs and leaves, unripe, and rotten fruit with mold. Then the berries by passing the pulp along with the juice is placed in an enamel pot or plastic basin, filling capacity max ¾ volume. Better to crush the grapes with your hands so as not to damage the seeds, which contain substances that make wine bitter. If the berries very much, they can be carefully peremat wooden rolling pin (or pestle).
Only wooden fixtures
You should avoid contact of the juice with the metal (except stainless steel) because it causes oxidation that can impair the taste. That is why berries knead by hand or with wooden tools, and pulp (bent grapes) placed in enameled pots c wide-mouthed bucket or pan. You can also use containers made of food-grade plastic or wooden barrel.
A container of pulp cover with a clean cloth to protect from flies, put on 3-4 days in a dark, warm (18-27°C) place. After 8-20 hours the juice will start to ferment, on the surface there is a “cap” of skins that should be down 1-2 times a day, mixing the pulp with a wooden stick or hand. If this is not done, the wort can sour.
Rapid fermentation of the pulp
2. The production of pure juice. After 3-4 days, the pulp white, sour smell will appear and you will hear a hiss. This means that fermentation has started successfully, it’s time squeeze the juice.
The top layer of the skin to collect in a separate container, squeeze press or by hand. All the juice (drained from the sediment and pressed pulp) is filtered through cheesecloth 2 or 3 times pouring from one container to another. Transfusion not only removes small particles but also enriches the juice with oxygen, which promotes healthy wine yeast at an early stage.
When working with unripe or grown in the Northern latitudes grapes in rare cases, may require the introduction of water. If the juice was very acidic (driving cheekbones and tongue sting), add water, maximum 500 ml per 1 liter. The more water, the worse the quality of the wine. It is better to leave a little acidity because during fermentation, the concentration of acid is slightly reduced.
Clean juice to fill capacity (max 70%) is intended for fermentation. Ideally, this large glass bottles, in the extreme case, if the amount of wine a small, fit, and banks.
3.Installation of a water slide. To homemade grape wine is not sour, it needs to be protected from contact with oxygen, while making the output of by-product of fermentation – carbon dioxide. This is done by setting the container of juice one of the structures of a hydraulic lock. The most common option is the classic water seal out of the cover, tubes and cans (see photo).
The classical scheme of a hydraulic lock
Also well proven conventional medical glove with a hole in one of the fingers (pierced with a needle).
Fermentation of wine with glove
The design of the water seal does not matter, but in terms of convenience for the large bottles it is better to put water seal classic, and on the Bank a glove or a paddle in the form of a cover (sold in stores).
Cover with water seal
4. The initial (active) fermentation. After the installation of the water seal container with fermented juice need to provide suitable temperature conditions. The optimum fermentation temperature of red house wine – 22-28°C, white – 16-22°C. we can Not allow the temperature dropped below 15°C, otherwise the yeast will stop, unable to process all of the sugar into alcohol.
5. The introduction of sugar. About 2% sugar in the wort gives 1% alcohol in the finished wine. In most Russian regions, the grapes sugar content rarely exceeds 20%. That means no added sugar in the best case, get a wine with an alcohol 10% and zero sweetness. On the other hand, the maximum possible fortress – 13-14% (usually 12), with a higher concentration of alcohol wine yeast stops working.
The problem is that to determine the initial sugar content of grapes at home without a special instrument (hydrometer) is impossible. Focus on average values across cultivars is also useless because it requires data on the sugar content of a selected variety in a specific climatic zone. In newinterchange areas such calculations no leads. So we have to focus on the taste of the juice – it should be sweet but not cloying.
To maintain the normal fermentation, the sugar content of the wort you cannot make more than 15-20%. To ensure this condition, sugar making parts (fractional). 2-3 days after fermentation begins to try juice for taste. When it becomes acidic (the sugar is processed), you need to make 50 grams of sugar per liter of juice. To do this in a separate container to pour 1-2 liters of wort, dilute the sugar in it, then the resulting wine syrup to pour back into the bottle.
The procedure is repeated several times (usually 3-4) for the first 14 to 25 days of fermentation. At some point the sugar content of the wort will decrease very slowly, it means that the sugar is enough.
Depending on temperature, sugar content, and activity of the yeast the period of fermentation of homemade wine is 30-60 days. If fermentation is not stopped 50 days after installation of seal water, to avoid bitterness, the wine should be poured into another container without sediment and put under water seal to Zobrazovat under the same temperature conditions.
6. Removing wine from the sediment. When the water trap for 1-2 days not let bubbles (glove blown away), the wort is clarified, formed on the bottom of a layer of loose sediment, it’s time to pour young wine into another container. The fact that at the bottom going dead fungi, long being at fault, they caused bitterness and unpleasant odor.
1-2 days before removing wine from the sediment in the fermentation container to put on the rise above the floor (50-60 cm). This can be a bench, chair or any other device. When the precipitate will again be at the bottom, the wine is drained into another container (clean and dry) through a siphon – transparent soft hose (a tube) with a diameter of 0.7-1 cm and a length of 1-1,5 m. end of the tube to keep to the residue closer than 2-3 inches.
Drained homemade wine will not be completely transparent. It’s not terrible, appearance of the beverage has not yet formed.
The process of removing sediment from
7.Control of sugar content. It’s time to decide on the sweetness of the wine. As active fermentation is over, all added at this stage, the sugar will be processed into alcohol.
Add sugar, focusing on taste preferences, but not more than 250 grams per liter. The technology of introduction described at the 5th stage. If the sweetness suits, in addition to podslushat not worth it. Fans of strong alcohol can make fortified grape wine, adding vodka (alcohol) in the calculation of 2-15% of the volume. Consolidation promotes the storage of wine, but it does taste harsher, but the flavor is not so rich, appear alcohol notes.
8. Quiet fermentation (maturation). Stage, during which formed the final taste. Lasts from 40 to 380 days. A longer exposure of domestic grape wines impractical because not improve the properties of the drink.
A bottle of wine (preferably filled to the top to avoid contact with oxygen) again to be placed under water seal (recommended if done the sugar) or cover tightly. The capacity to store in a dark cellar or basement at a temperature of 5-16°C. If this is not possible, young red wine, you need to ensure the maturation temperature of 18-22°C, but not above. It is important to avoid sudden temperature changes, for example, day and night, otherwise the taste will deteriorate. The minimum period of aging of white wine, 40 days, red – 60-90 days.
When the bottom sediment layer of 2-5 cm pour wine from one container to another through a tube, leaving the sediment at the bottom, as described at the 6th stage. As a result, the drink will be gradually clarified.
9. Artificial clarification (fining). Even after several months in the basement, homemade wine from grapes can remain muddy. The problem is solved by refining the wine from the impurities. The most common methods of fining with gelatin or egg white.
Clarification only improves the appearance but does not affect the taste, so I recommend to do the cleaning only in extreme cases.
10. Spill and storage. At the last stage (when the precipitate no longer appears), the wine can be poured into the bottle and tightly close the caps.
Red wine 6 months of aging
The shelf life at a temperature of 5-12°C – up to 5 years. Fortress 11-13% (without consolidation of the vodka or alcohol).
The video shows the technology of making wine out of sour grapes where pressed juice half diluted with water. True only for the Northern regions with a very sour berries because the addition of water affect the taste.