Wine is a popular and favorite drink in all countries. Celebrations, holidays, meetings with friends or dinner with the family can not do without the use of light alcohol. The taste of the drink depends on the grapes used for making wine. It affects the final taste, the aromatic features and the color of the drink. And talk about this in the article.
Technical grape varieties
From what grapes it is best to make wine? Usually used commercial varieties of plants. The difference is that clusters are formed of small berries with a thick rind. The berries contain lots of juice (up to 80-85% of the total weight).
Advantage technical grades is that every year on the vines ripen a large number of clusters. Technical crops are grown almost in all the countries where the grapes grow, including in Ukraine. It is noteworthy that the same grapes grown in different countries may have difference in the taste bouquet and aroma.
The acidity and sweetness of the berries determines, to prepare a drink they will use. From technical varieties make excellent dry, dessert, sparkling wine.
The advantage of wine grapes
The distinctive features of the best wine grapes:
- Resistance to high/low temperatures, pests, insects, common diseases;
- The high juice content in the fruit (up to 90% of the total weight);
- The sugar content of the pulp (minimum 20%);
- The size of the berries (technical varieties have small berries with a thick rind);
- Technical berries contain many vitamins and coloring agents, which positively affects the quality and taste of the wine.
Classification of wines
The wine is classified according to the following criteria: taste, odor, color, exposure, provenance, technology of preparation. There is a classification of grape varieties for wine, depending on which beverage you want to winemakers. Professionals know how to make wine from different grape varieties, or use a certain grade.
Below is the description of varieties of grapes to produce white and red wines.
Wine from white grapes
The composition of white technical grapes inferior in quality red varieties. However, white grapes are grown in large quantities, because it is more resistant to adverse weather conditions. In the Northern regions often grown white engineering culture when the Southern regions are growing equally well to any variety.
Some of the grapes white wine is produced? Light is used not only grapes, but also dark berries. An important condition is that the juice of black berries should be colorless. Technology white wine prepared from the juice, without the use of skins of berries. The fact that the skin contains colour pigment that colors the drink.
The result is a bright wine from light yellow to a deep honey color.
What varieties of white grapes used for wine?
The world famous grape, native to France. Grape rounded and firmly attached to each other. The juice of aligoté sweet, with a mild pleasant taste. Made of fine dry, sparkling white wine. This variety used to produce strong wine and the basics for brandy.
Considered one of the best white grapes. Berries rounded, with dense not thick skinned. The yield is high, but Riesling is, unfortunately, sensitive to weather changes and many diseases.
To grow Riesling began in Germany, and still it grows in Alsace and on the banks of the Rhine. At the beginning of the last century a white Riesling wine was considered a valuable and expensive drink, along with red French wines.
The perfect grape variety for dry white wine. The drink is soft, a little tartness, it has a light fruity bouquet of flavors and aromas.
Refers to the technical white grapes, is the basis for many French elite drinks. It is worth noting that the wine of Chablis is made from this grape variety. The birthplace of Chardonnay is Burgundy. It produces table wines, and sparkling alcoholic beverages.
French winemakers claim that from the juice of Chardonnay can’t get bad wine. Depending on the cooking method from Chardonnay are produced light wine with a fruity aftertaste, dinner drinks with a floral bouquet of flavors, full-bodied sweet wine with notes of honey. What color is a wine from grapes Chardonnay? The color can vary from transparent yellow to rich Golden.
The berries ripen long, suffused with juice. Completion of ripening, the acidity in the juice is reduced and the sugar content increases. Chardonnay is often subjected to fungal diseases, but wet weather on the grapes may rot. However, variety is very popular among winemakers.
Homeland varieties considered the Arcadia of France. First and foremost, the grapes intended for fresh consumption. Wine from grapes of Arcadia is not released, because the level of sugar content and acidity of the juice is not suited for winemaking. It’s also the amount of tannin, which is not sufficient for obtaining a quality product.
The second name of a plant is Macabeo. It grows in France and Spain. From grapes Macabeo obtained as fresh, light fruity wine, and thick, heavy drink. Much depends on the degree of ripening grapes on the vine.
One of the oldest French varieties. Now Chenin Blanc grows not only in France but also it is grown in America and South Africa. However, France has a leading position in the cultivation of Chenin Blanc.
The taste of the grapes depends on the climatic conditions in which the vines grow. General characteristics: spicy taste with honey notes, low acidity, light floral scent.
Technical grape variety gewürztraminer, which is used for making white wine. The drink is mixed feelings: he has many admirers, but some do not understand the taste of this wine. Tasters called the wine “Frank” for being too strong floral and fruity notes. Those who try gewürztraminer for the first time, don’t often take complex combinations of flavors.
The vines grow in Germany, the Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Australia, South Africa and other countries. White grape varieties Gewurztraminer are grown in the Crimea and used for making wine with a wonderful flavor.
The Birthplace Of The Bianchi — Hungary. It is considered universal due to the ratio in the juice of sugar and fruit acids. Wine from the berries turns with a touch of almond and light notes of vanilla. Quite often when making dry, sweet and sparkling wine mixed with the less sweet grape. Bianca – luscious varieties, so to avoid the overly sweet taste of the drink, grape wine sweet varieties is diluted less sugary juices.
Note! Even in the period of final maturation of the berries in clusters do not lose their attractive appearance.
Muscat grape has a distinctive spicy taste. Grow in clusters on the fleshy berries with a thick skin. There are many varieties of Muscat grapes, but White Muscat is distinguished by elegance and lightness of taste. Used for sweet and sparkling white wines.
Because the White Muscat does not tolerate lowering the temperature, it must be closed in the winter cold months.
Refers to universal technical varieties of grapes used to make fragrant and delicious white wine. Depending on the time of harvest, the taste of the drink may be a slight grassy or rich fruit. Grows Sauvignon Blanc in the United States, Argentina, Australia, France.
Despite the fact that Chasselas grapes variety, it is often used for white table drinks. The berries are round, sweet, melting flesh color yellowish-green. The world tasters appreciated the wine, made from Chasselas.
The grape variety Grillo is used for making white wine. Homeland Grillo is Italy, and now it is actively cultivated in Sicily. The juice and pulp Grillo contains a high amount of sugar, which is important for a successful process of winemaking.
Georgian grape has an unusual tart taste. It is an exclusive dry and strong wine. Rkatsiteli has an increased yield, berries grow in clusters on a rounded shape with translucent skin. Rkatsiteli is grown not only in Georgia but also in the South of Ukraine.
Early variety bred by our compatriots. Characteristics similar to the cultivar Chasselas, but the taste of “Friendship,” there are some nutmeg notes. The juice of the ripe berries have a higher sugar content. It is made of white wine of good quality with a rich aroma of berries. “Friendship” is considered a hardy plant, but with the onset of cold weather the vines desirable to cover.
Originally a white grape “Crystal” began to grow in Hungary, but it quickly began to spread on the southern side of Russia. “Crystal” tolerates frost, not exposed to diseases, undemanding in the choice of the soil. Vines need more sun to the berries towards the end of ripening were poured by sweet juice. Most of the Crystal makes a fragrant sherry.
Albio actively cultivated in the Crimea. Used both as a standalone wine, or in combination with other juices. Albio added to the blend of juices in the manufacture of the famous Crimean port.
Tramin is the birthplace of Austria, and is cultivated in many European countries. Despite the fact that the grapes are quite whimsical to weather conditions, it is considered to be popular among European winemakers. This is one of the most valuable varieties used to make dry wines, sparkling beverages, sweet wine with a pleasant floral aroma. The berries of this grape variety is used for the manufacture not only white, but also rosé wines.
The plant has clusters of small size, with small dense berries. The skin is quite thick, thick, flesh juicy, sweet. The yield of Tramin is not high, but it is considered frost resistant.
Red wine is made from colored grapes. Berries can have shade from pale scarlet to bluish-black. A distinctive feature of the technology of making red wine is that for wort use not only the juice but also the skins of the grapes.
Red wine is considered a very healthy drink provided that it was made from quality wine with respect for the compounding and storage.
Of which grapes is red wine? What are the most suitable varieties of grapes for making red wine?
One of the most popular varieties for making dry and sweet red wine. The drink is delicate and at the same time with different flavors: blackcurrant, chocolate, coffee. Cabernet Sauvignon was grown in the southern French towns, but nowadays cultivated in many countries. Ukraine is also growing this grape. Resistant to low temperature and to many diseases, which often suffer from plants.
Young wines from Cabernet have too intense flavor and strong odor, so drinks need a long exposure. These elite wines are aged about 7-8 years, to drink has opened a whole bouquet of flavors.
Technical grapes, which appeared relatively recently. In the 18th century it began to be cultivated in Bordeaux, and then the grapes began to grow also in Italy. From Merlot serves upscale red dessert wine with soft fruit flavors. The berries of the Merlot grapes used for making dry red wine. Wine from Merlot also has a pleasant light taste.
Note! Many winemakers like to kopirovat French grape varieties Merlot with Cabernet Sauvignon to receive exclusive wines. They complement each other, revealing their individual advantageous features.
The grapes are round, very juicy, with a thick rind. Grow bunches of medium size, with a characteristic white bloom on the berries. Merlot is considered a hardy variety. This variety can withstand temperatures up to -17 degrees Celsius.
Popular technical red grapes, is considered to be the ancestor of Sauvignon. But, in contrast, Cabernet France has a pleasant sweet berry notes. The taste is raspberry and BlackBerry. Wine made only from Cabernet France produced very rarely, usually Cabernet France mixed with other juices.
The plant is not too productive, but it is practically not exposed to many known diseases of the plant.
Winemakers often use the Shiraz in pure form without blending. But, for example, professionals from Australia prefer to mix with Shiraz Sauvignon. Pure drink there are herbal and tobacco notes, the taste of black pepper and dark chocolate. Wine from grapes Shiraz has a thick texture, has a bright cherry color and intense taste.
To grow Pinot Noir began in Burgundy (France). It is different sweet flavor and a whole bunch of different flavors. The quality of the wine made from Pinot Noir, independent of geography the growth of plants, technology, sweets berries. Pinot Noir winemakers believe one of the most unpredictable, so it is impossible to guess exactly what the taste will be the drink at the end of the process.
From Pinot Noir turns upscale champagne, rose wine, table drinks. Pinot Noir has an army of admirers, who appreciate the resulting aged wine.
Bunches with small dark blue berries, which are virtually colorless juice, but the rind has an active pigments.
Quite unpretentious culture that survives well after the transplant. Likes warm soil, so in winter the vines should be insulated to prevent freezing. Wine from grapes Richelieu, it turns a beautiful ruby colour with a rich, intense flavor.
Homeland Mourvedre – Sunny Spain. Berries in clusters, are oblong or round in shape. The plant is often subjected to fungal diseases, but is well tolerated arid climate. Survives well in almost any soil.
Wines from Spanish varieties of grapes are obtained with a slight acidity and a pleasant fruity aroma.
The Spanish grape Bobal, from which red wine contains a large number of pigments. Berries fleshy, succulent, often have an irregular shape due to tight fit to each other. Bobal blended with other varieties of red grapes to obtain elite alcohol drinks.
One of the main advantages of grape Isabella is its frost resistance. The vines do not need shelter in the winter cold months. Vine undemanding to care, rarely sick, not susceptible to insect attack. On an industrial scale juice Isabella is added to the red and rose wines to improve the taste of beverages.
At home this variety is used for the production of red dessert wine.
From this variety of grapes Tuscan winemakers produce world-renowned Chianti wine. Italian wines from Sangiovese are obtained fairly easy, with high acidity. Tasters noted in the drink notes of cherry, violets and nuts. Also from Sangiovese grapes make Valpolicella, wine red, rarely white, with fruity notes and a pleasant sour-sweet taste.
The black variety is thermophilic. Bunches of medium size, with an oblong blue berries. The wine is obtained by the average degree of saturation, but with rich flavor characteristics.
Vintage French plant that in our time actively also grows in Chile. Clusters can have different shapes from cylindrical to spherical. Berries are small in size, but very juicy and sweet. They make dining rooms and sweet wines, which are not only a variety of taste but also a whole palette of colors, from pale pink to deep Burgundy.
Usually this plant is used for making dessert wines. Berries with juicy sweet flesh are a dark blue color. The drink obtained with a subtle muscatel flavor.
Georgian grape varieties for wine are tartness and sweetness at the same time. Juice Saperavi has a bright red color with a bluish tinge.
Many fans of Georgian wines interesting, from what grapes make wine Kindzmarauli. Popular in his time, in all the countries of the Soviet Union, the wine is made from grapes Saperavi. It is worth noting that now Kindzmarauli loved far beyond the borders of Georgia.
Technical grape variety Malbec is a sturdy red wine. Bunches of Malbec is medium in size, ripe berries have a dark blue, almost black color. The plant thrives in a hot climate, and Morozov, on the contrary, very afraid.
Malbec is most often used by Argentine and French winemakers. The result is strong enough, viscous red wine.
Aleksandrouli and mujuretuli
From what grapes make wine Khvanchkara? Georgian red wine is made from two kinds of plants: Aleksandrouli and mujuretuli grown in the Ambrolauri district. Drink with natural sweetness is a true art of winemaking has a rich history and many admirers among political figures and celebrities. The technology of making Khvanchkara is different from the traditional winemaking process. Grapes are crushed into a homogeneous mass, which is placed in special fermentation capacity of clay. After fermentation, the wine is mandatory pasteurized.
Marquette – the fruit of the crossing of eight different types of grapes. The result was displayed the new hardy undemanding plant. From grapes, Marquette wine is varied with different flavors: table, dessert, fortified. The drink has an intense ruby color, the predominant flavor notes: BlackBerry, chocolate, vanilla, spices.
Grape varieties resistant to strong frosts
There are many types of plants that can withstand low temperature down to minus 30-35 degrees. But in cold weather the vines are a must-cover. Frosts are especially dangerous for the young shoots, therefore, should be particularly carefully to ensure that they were properly insulated.
- Muscat Odessa. The bunches of ripe yellow grapes, the juice has a tart muscatel flavor.
- Fortuna. Also refers to the nutmeg species, but has a reddish-blue berries.
- Anniversary. Blue grape that produces a pleasant and light wine.
- Gurzufsky pink. It is made of red full-bodied wine with a pleasant Muscat flavor.
Neutralny grapes for wine:
- Venus, etc.
How to make the right choice?
Home winemakers are constantly asking ourselves, what grape varieties it is better to choose for the manufacture of high quality domestic wine. To know the answer, you need to try to use several types to finally decide which vines to plant on the plot.
The best grapes, which opted for home winemakers making wine:
- Aligoté. French grapes are characterized by the presence of small greenish berries, which are pressed tightly to each other. From grapes Aligote make excellent sparkling and table wines.
- Aleatico. Sweet and juicy berries are used for production of Muscat wines.
- Cabernet. Small red berries are the basis for wine with a complex bouquet of flavors. The wine is tart, with woody notes.
- Bastardo. The homeland of this culture is considered to be Portugal. The berries are small, juicy, have almost black color. From grapes Saperavi produced sweet wines.
- Merlot. In France the young drink made from Merlot grapes, long kept in special oak barrels. At home you can try to repeat the world-famous recipe of red wine.
- Muscat Hamburg. Used for the production of table, sparkling and dessert wines.
- Chardonnay. Small yellowish berries are juicy, with thin skin. The flavor is simultaneously sweet and a little sour.
- Pinot. French dark grape, which is characterized by a juicy pulp and soft skin. From Pinot cook sweet strong red drink.
- Isabella. Popular varieties of grapes for making wine at home.
The most popular grape varieties for wine:
- Cabernet Franc;
- Pinot Noir;
- The Sauvignon Blanc.
Popular drinks and grapes
What grapes make wine Cahors?
Cahors is a popular red wine which has a rich pleasant taste. Wine contains a lot of nutrients, so even those who lead a healthy lifestyle, allow sometimes to drink small amounts of Cahors. France uses a blend of the following types: Malbec (70%), Tannat and Merlot (15%). In the post-Cahors wine is made from grapes Sauvignon.
From what grapes the wine is produced lyhny?
Wine is made in the same place in Abkhazia. Local winemakers use for making wine from local grape Isabella, which grows in Abkhazia. In berries contains natural sugar, so the drink is sweet without adding refined sugar.
From what grapes the wine is made Barolo?
This is one of the famous Italian drinks with complex rich flavor and unique aroma. Is used exclusively the Nebbiolo grape with a unique, slightly bitter taste.
To get delicious and high quality homemade grape wine, you need not only to pick up the variety, but also to properly care for the plant. The number needs to be directed from South to North, it is very important. If you plant vines from West to East, they most of the time will be in the shade.
It is better to plant vines on the South side of the site. Vines constantly need as much sun. The berries on the Sunny side will be more sweet and juicy, with lots of vitamins and minerals.
Each vine is getting enough sun, the bushes are not planted too close to each other. If table grapes important advantage is the amount of berries in wine varieties prized sweetness and juiciness of the berries.
The grapes used as raw wine, will determine the final taste of wine, the organoleptic properties, the level of sugar content and acidity. There are a large number of various types of plants, each of which has unique properties and characteristics. At home you can experiment by trying new combinations to make delicious grape wine.